In a Google search for “Instructional Design Methods”, I think this image by Giulia Forsythe is very useful.
cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo shared by giulia.forsythe
Unlike the “powerpoint boxes” that abstract away all the process, this image is messy, just like the reality of educational technology. It makes clear that a specific starting point not clear, though the weighting and positioning of the texts suggests a user centered start is best – who is learning, then what you want them to learn. It also provides a practical resource for finding new ideas, as encourage by Moonen (2002).
The image seems to focus on the left on traditional systematic delivery methods, and on the right more on constructivist techniques. This accurately reflects the hybrid of the two which is used, as Jonassen, McAleese, & Duffy (1993) describe, going from introductory material delivered traditionally to expertise through constructivism.
We can also clearly pick out elements of the ADDIE model – the analysis of users and tasks, the design of material and evaluation techniques, and the feedback. We see rough designs for the development and implementation, but no actual mention of them – perhaps as this image was from an article focused on designing web courses.
This image clearly focuses on a user centered design – WHO the users are is almost the first word a reader notices. Likewise, we see the emphasis on recursive and reflective experiences, with lots of complex feedback and loops between parts of the design.
It’s also interesting for me that this is teaching ‘teachers’ on important points to consider when using educational technology, and in it’s development, used these same processes. On Giulia’s blog you can see she asked for feedback, and this is actually a version 2 of the image with extra focus on feedback.
- Moonen, J. (2002). Design methodology. In A.A. Adelsberger, B. Collins, J.M. Pawlowski (Eds.), Handbook on Information Technologies for Education and Training. Springer-Verlag, 153-180
Jonassen, D. H., McAleese, T. M. R. & Duffy, T. M. (1993). A Manifesto for a constructivist approach to technology in higher education. In Duffy, T. M., Lowyck, J. & Jonassen, D. H. (Eds.) The design of constructivistic learning environments: Implications for instructional design and the use of technology, Heidelburg, FRG: Springer-Verlag
- Forsythe, G (2012). Planning an Online Course. Available online at http://gforsythe.ca/planning-an-online-course/ (retrieved 31.03.2014)